Different methods that are available for detection of the same markers, such as serum levels and immunohistochemical detection of CEA or P-gp, FCM or RT-PCR can also be used to detect.
Serum levels: in addition to conventional Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), currently in China there are three main classes of chemical analysis of auto-immune systems (chemiluminescence immunoassay system fluoroimmunoassay system and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay systems) is widely used in clinic, on serum tumor marker test is fast, accurate, semi-quantitative. Available test AFP, CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125, CA15-3, NSE, and Cyfra21-1, and PSA, f-PSA etc.
Histological level: Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization Histochemistry technique was developed in recent years a new interdisciplinary. Immunological techniques and molecular biological techniques in conjunction with organizational pathology sectioning method, the tissue cells in situ displays some of the chemical composition and specific gene fragments.
General specimen about 5%~15% in difficult cases or required the use of Immunohistochemistry in differential diagnosis of malignant tumor and prognosis.
Porter d cell gene expression detected using mRNA in situ hybridization and Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray detection of breast ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma of pathological features and clinical significance. )
Image analysis on quantitative determination of histological tumor cell DNA content and morphological analysis, the judge malignant degree and prognosis is of great clinical value.
Cytological level: flow cytometry (Flow Cytometry, FCM). Using FCM to cell and organelle structure and quantitative detection of certain functions, and use the specific markers on the cell surface to specific cell subsets analysis and separation technology. Detecting markers for leukemias and lymphomas (CD series) facilitate the diagnosis and differential diagnosis used FCM P-gp malignant tumor cells can provide the basis for clinical drug; we use the FCM detection of CD44 in the peripheral blood of gastrointestinal tumors.
Electron microscopy: electron microscopic Cytochemistry, immune electron microscopy, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy.
Molecular level: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an extremely simple, sensitive, efficient, specific and rapid in vitro amplification of DNA technology.
At present, using RT-PCR method for detection of tumor cells in the peripheral blood of the main marker Cytokeratin 19 (CK19 mRNA) and 20 (CK20mRNA) for malignant epithelial; carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEAmRNA) for colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and CEA secreting tumors; alpha-fetoprotein (AFPmRNA) for the detection of micrometastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochip analysis systems: ① Gene chips. We do ovarian cancer  and esophageal cancer [28,29] gene expression profiling research. Zhu g reports  by Microdissection and microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes in breast cancer tumor cells in different parts. Secondly, tissue microarray . Tissue microarray, human and can help save reagent costs. Analysis of tumor volume of reagent in the past can now be up to hundreds of even 1000 tumor, and is simultaneously on the same slice. ③ protein chips. Marker combined detection provides the ideal tool for many, United Kingdom RANDOX company has introduced in the world contains 8 kinds of tumor markers protein chip.